What adaptive features have contributed to the success of plants and animals on land

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What adaptive features have contributed to the success of plants and animals on land

Elephas Proboscidea phylogeny based on Shoshani Only when Elephas disappeared from Africa did Loxodonta become dominant once again, this time in the form of the modern species.

Elephas diversified into new species in Asia, such as E. The skull grew larger, especially the cranium, while the neck shortened to provide better support for the skull. The increase in size led to the development and elongation of the mobile trunk to provide reach.

The number of premolarsincisors and canines decreased. Only in the last million years or so did they return to a diet mainly consisting of C3 trees and shrubs.

Some proboscideans developed tusks from their lower incisors. Some DNA studies suggest Mammuthus is more closely related to the former [54] [55] while others point to the latter. Dwarf elephant Skeleton of a Cretan dwarf elephant Several species of proboscideans lived on islands and experienced insular dwarfism.

This occurred primarily during the Pleistocene when some elephant populations became isolated by fluctuating sea levels, although dwarf elephants did exist earlier in the Pliocene. These elephants likely grew smaller on islands due to a lack of large or viable predator populations and limited resources.

By contrast, small mammals such as rodents develop gigantism in these conditions. Dwarf proboscideans are known to have lived in Indonesiathe Channel Islands of Californiaand several islands of the Mediterranean.

Other descendants of the straight-tusked elephant existed in Cyprus.

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Dwarf elephants of uncertain descent lived in CreteCycladesand Dodecanese while dwarf mammoths are known to have lived in Sardinia. This species reached a height of 1. The average male African bush elephant is 3.

Asian elephants are smaller, with males being 2. African forest elephants are the smallest extant species, on average being 2. African elephants have 21 pairs of ribs, while Asian elephants have 19 or 20 pairs.

Neo-Darwinism: The Current Paradigm. by Brig Klyce

The back of the skull is flattened and spread out, creating arches that protect the brain in every direction. These cavities give the inside of the skull a honeycomb -like appearance. The cranium is particularly large and provides enough room for the attachment of muscles to support the entire head.Chapter 30 Key Terrestrial Adaptations Were Crucial to the Success of Seed Plants 1.

Name five terrestrial adaptations that contributed to the success of seed plants.

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The five terrestrial adaptations include the seed, reduction of the gametophyte generation, heterospory, ovules, and pollen. 2 5/5(5). I. Introduction. It is by comparing themselves to nature around them that human beings can note their natural connection to the animal world, with which they share most of their vital functions.

What adaptive features have contributed to the success of plants and animals on land

What adaptive features have contributed to the success of various plants and animals on land? plants: waxy leaves, ability to retain water, poison animals adapt to.

Examples of physical adaptations are evident in the organs of animals; natural selection does not retain superfluous organs.

What adaptive features have contributed to the success of plants and animals on land

For example, the lungs of mammals are specifically adapted for breathing on dry land, while fish have gills adapted for breathing in water; these two types of organs are not interchangeable. Living on land means reptiles can't rely on absorbing oxygen through their skin like amphibians.

All reptiles have lungs they use for breathing -- even those who live most of their lives near or in water, such as crocodiles, must surface to breathe.

What features not present in seedless plants have contributed to the enormous success of the seed plants on land? Three things: The gametophytes of seed plants are reduced and dependent upon the parent sporophyte which protects them (particularly in the case of the female gametophyte).

What adaptive features have contributed to the success of various plants and animals on land