The digestive respiratory and cardiovascular system

A number of alterations, often causing more or less distress, occur in the physical condition and functions of the gastrointestinal tract during pregnancy. Structures and functions of the human digestive system The digestive tract begins at the lips and ends at the anus.

The digestive respiratory and cardiovascular system

The particular action illustrated here is called the pump handle movement of the rib cage.

What Does the Respiratory System Do: Its Parts and Their Functions December 21, 0 Comments Blood Vessels are often compared to a system of pipes with liquid circulating in them, but this analogy is only a starting point. Unlike pipes, blood vessels are extremely dynamic structures that constrict, relax, pulsate, and proliferate.
Digestive System Physiology March Other animals While humans, as well as other vertebrateshave a closed cardiovascular system meaning that the blood never leaves the network of arteriesveins and capillariessome invertebrate groups have an open cardiovascular system.
How Do the Respiratory & Cardiovascular System Work Together? | Sciencing Digestive System Anatomy Mouth Food begins its journey through the digestive system in the mouth, also known as the oral cavity. Inside the mouth are many accessory organs that aid in the digestion of food—the tongue, teeth, and salivary glands.

This allows a movement similar to the "pump handle effect", but in this case it is called the bucket handle movement. The color of the ribs refers to their classification, and is not relevant here. Contracting muscles are shown in red; relaxed muscles in blue. Contraction of the diaphragm generally contributes the most to the expansion of the chest cavity light blue.

However, at the same time, the intercostal muscles pull the ribs upwards their effect is indicated by arrows also causing the rib cage to expand during inhalation see diagram on other side of the page.

The relaxation of all these muscles during exhalation cause the rib cage and abdomen light green to elastically return to their resting positions. The color code is the same as on the left.

In addition to a more forceful and extensive contraction of the diaphragm, the intercostal muscles are aided by the accessory muscles of inhalation to exaggerate the movement of the ribs upwards, causing a greater expansion of the rib cage.

During exhalation, apart from the relaxation of the muscles of inhalation, the abdominal muscles actively contract to pull the lower edges of the rib cage downwards decreasing the volume of the rib cage, while at the same time pushing the diaphragm upwards deep into the thorax.

In mammalsinhalation at rest is primarily due to the contraction of the diaphragm.


This is an upwardly domed sheet of muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. When it contracts the sheet flattens, i.

The Mucosa

The contracting diaphragm pushes the abdominal organs downwards. But because the pelvic floor prevents the lowermost abdominal organs moving in that direction, the pliable abdominal contents cause the belly to bulge outwards to the front and sides, because the relaxed abdominal muscles do not resist this movement Fig.

This entirely passive bulging and shrinking during exhalation of the abdomen during normal breathing is sometimes referred to as "abdominal breathing", although it is, in fact, "diaphragmatic breathing", which is not visible on the outside of the body.

Mammals only use their abdominal muscles only during forceful exhalation see Fig. Never during any form of inhalation. As the diaphragm contracts, the rib cage is simultaneously enlarged by the ribs being pulled upwards by the intercostal muscles as shown in Fig.

All the ribs slant downwards from the rear to the front as shown in Fig. Thus the rib cage's transverse diameter can be increased in the same way as the antero-posterior diameter is increase by the so-called pump handle movement shown in Fig.

The enlargement of the thoracic cavity's vertical dimension by the contraction of the diaphragm, and its two horizontal dimensions by the lifting of the front and sides of the ribs, causes the intrathoracic pressure to fall.

The lungs' interiors are open to the outside air, and being elastic, therefore expand to fill the increased space.

The digestive respiratory and cardiovascular system

The inflow of air into the lungs occurs via the respiratory airways Fig. In health these airways starting at the nose or mouth, and ending in the microscopic dead-end sacs called alveoli are always open, though the diameters of the various sections can be changed by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.

This returns the chest and abdomen to a position determined by their anatomical elasticity. This is the "resting mid-position" of the thorax and abdomen Fig.

The scale on the left, and the blue line, indicate the partial pressures of carbon dioxide in kPa, while that on the right and the red line, indicate the partial pressures of oxygen, also in kPa to convert kPa into mm Hg, multiply by 7.

The volume of air that moves in or out at the nose or mouth during a single breathing cycle is called the tidal volume.ICD Version Chapters. Certain infectious and parasitic diseases Neoplasms Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism.

The digestive, cardiovascular and respiratory system are all interrelated in order to make the human body work effectively and efficiently. The cardiovascular system and the respiratory work together by performing gas exchange which is passing of oxygen from the alveoli into the blood flow and then the carbon dioxide passes trough the blood.

Speech Production – Inhalation is the first step of speech production, with the next two steps being sound production through the vocal folds around the larynx (phonation), and forming the words or sounds with the vocal folds, mouth, nose, tongue, and jaw (articulation) [50].

What Does the Respiratory System Do: Its Parts and Their Functions. The respiratory system is made up of multiple. Respiratory System is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for the process of respiration in an organism.

The respiratory system is involved in the intake and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between an organism and the environment. Bio-Console Speed Controller System The Bio-Console ® Speed Controller System continues to provide significant advantages for the patient, the surgeon and the perfusionist as newer bypass technologies evolve and your circuits continue to become smaller and more compact.

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