Although Mead taught in a philosophy department, he is best known by sociologists as the teacher who trained a generation of the best minds in their field. Strangely, he never set forth his wide-ranging ideas in a book or systematic treatise. After his death inhis students pulled together class notes and conversations with their mentor and published Mind, Self and Society in his name. Finally, society, according to Mead, is where all of these interactions are taking place.
Nearly 70 percent of the Gross National Product of the United States and other industrial nations can be traced to services Lovelockwhile up to three-quarters of those employed in some countries labor in service sector occupations Bateson Scholars and researchers have given significant attention to how the marketing of services differs from the marketing of goods Berry ; Sasser ; Zeithaml, Berry and Parasuraman ; etc.
One key characteristic that distinguishes services marketing Symbolic interactionism essay the simultaneity of production and consumption of the service product Bateson ; Berry ; Zeithaml, Berry and Parasuraman Services exist only in the time in which they are rendered and are living processes that cannot be disassembled Shostack and Kingman-Brundagep.
These various aspects of service delivery underscore the notion that services are complex, behavioral phenomena that can be quite difficult to understand or describe.
A review of the services marketing literature compiled by Fisk, Tansuhaj and Crosby reveals that less than fifteen percent of the total service literature to attempts to conceptualize the service experience. In short, conceptual frameworks are needed Bowen ; Upah, Berry and Shostack ; Lovelock that demonstrate common characteristics of services, Symbolic interactionism essay the processual nature of services, and address the "descriptive language problems" Shostack plaguing the services literature.
In an effort to satisfy this need for conceptual frameworks, the discussion that follows posits a general framework for services marketing based upon the metaphor of behavior as drama. The underpinnings of the drama metaphor are presented, along with several key concepts that it offers for the description of services marketing.
The service experience as theater is further developed and implications ensuing from the framework are given. Finally, some research issues are examined and concluding comments are given. As such, it is particularly relevant as a means to describe service encounters.
As a sociological school of thought born from the symbolic interactionist paradigm, the behavior as drama metaphor has generated wide attention. Perinbanayagam,have contributed much to the development of the dramaturgical perspective. Underlying their observations is the tacit understanding that people are symbol users who interact with each other based upon the meanings they assign to the sundry elements present at any behavioral setting.
Dramaturgy, then, is greatly concerned with the broad issue of communication, both discursive speech and language and nondiscursive gestures, clothing, and other objectsand the connection between the two Brissett and Edgley Definitions of reality emerge as action occurs and those present strive to make sense of behavior situations.
Social reality, then, is not simply like drama, it is drama in so far as it a discourse involving articulation, definition and interaction Perinbanayagamp.
The application of the drama metaphor to behavior is probably best represented in the scholarly efforts of Goffman,and most readily in his work, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Goffman describes social behavior as theatrical "performances" in which "actors" present themselves and their actions in such a manner as to fashion desired "impressions" before an "audience.
Here critical aspects of actors' presentations are planned and practiced to arrive at a general coherence among the dramaturgical elements necessary to staging a believable performance. Through it all, however, is the realization that performances are fragile processes that are easily undermined by the most minor of mishaps.
The role of the audience in developing and maintaining a definition of an interactive situation cannot be ignored. The audience's evolving expectations and continuous communication verbal and nonverbal of its responses to a performance as it unfolds provide the actors with needed information to guide their behavior toward a desired outcome.
While the meanings and interpretations that an audience assigns to a behavioral encounter may be partially a function of previous learning, their validation occurs during or following the interaction. In other words, meanings are not absolute or static characteristics of the world, but are the result of a continuous social process Burke Further, it is important to note that this negotiation of a definition of the situation occurs, whether or not it is by design, since all behavior is ostensibly expressive in nature Zicklin The metaphor that behavior is drama and the various principles that it engenders provide a framework for describing, understanding, and communicating about services experiences.
Based upon the metaphor and, to a significant degree, some of Goffman's observations, we develop a view of services experiences that unifies and extends beyond much of the extant services principles. In essence, our contention is that services themselves are drama and may be understood as theatrical performances.
Both are concerned with the tactics and strategies employed by people to create and sustain desirable impressions before an audience.
Essay Exam #3 Symbolic interactionism is a sociological viewpoint that has shaped various matters of the practice as we know it today. Social interactionism particular focus is based on how individuals learn to interpret and also gives meaning to the world through interaction with others. Free Essay: Three years and a few months ago, I can still recall the memories of being a nursing student, I was studying in a university wherein our. Essay Bartleby the Scrivener, Deeply Symbolic. Bartleby the Scrivener, a Deeply Symbolic Work "Bartleby the Scrivener," is one of the most complicated stories Melville has ever written, perhaps by any American writer of that period.
Both, also, suggest that one way to achieve this is by careful and prudent management of the actors' expressive behavior and the physical setting in which it occurs. Reflecting observations of services scholars, Goffman notes that in their performance " Clearly, Goffman recognized that services issues are resplendent with dramatic character.
Many of the drama concepts and principles may be used to capture the service experience.Symbolic interactionism is a sociological theory that develops from practical considerations and alludes to people's particular utilization of dialect to make images and normal implications, for deduction and correspondence with others.
In other words, it is a frame of reference to better understand how individuals interact with one another to create symbolic worlds, and in return, how these.
Essay Exam #3 Symbolic interactionism is a sociological viewpoint that has shaped various matters of the practice as we know it today. Social interactionism particular focus is based on how individuals learn to interpret and also gives meaning to the world through interaction with others.
Explain the differences between Macro and Micro sociology. Identify some of the key sociological approaches in both areas. Which do you think is more useful for studying society and why?
Giddens () defines sociology in the following way: “Sociology is the study of human social life, groups and. Free Essay: Three years and a few months ago, I can still recall the memories of being a nursing student, I was studying in a university wherein our.
Essay Exam #3 Symbolic interactionism is a sociological viewpoint that has shaped various matters of the practice as we know it today.
Social interactionism particular focus is based on how individuals learn to interpret and also gives meaning to the world through interaction with others. The increased interest to the problem of communication in sociology of the 20 century actualized, in particular, importance of understanding each other at differing positions, defining own views to the opposite.
Gradually in the sociology was formed an integrationists branch, that studied the.