These people are often highly skilled and highly mobile, performing the high-level, complex tasks that keep critical operations running in high-risk industrial environments like the energy sector, or in process industries like manufacturing and chemicals. The growth of digital technology and the Internet of Things IoTtogether with the convergence of operational and information technology, heralds a new era for these workers.
The headnotes preceeding each sections are by Scott and Baltzly. A medical observer's description of what the work did to the worker follows.
Any man who has stood at twelve o'clock at the single narrow door-way, which serves as the place of exit for the hands employed in the great cotton-mills, must acknowledge, that an uglier set of men and women, of boys and girls, taking them in the mass, it would be impossible to congregate in a smaller compass.
Their complexion is sallow and pallid--with a peculiar flatness of feature, caused by the want of a proper quantity of adipose substance to cushion out the cheeks. Their stature low--the average height of four hundred men, measured at different times, and different places, being five feet six inches.
Their limbs slender, and playing badly and ungracefully. A very general bowing of the legs. Great numbers of girls and women walking lamely or awkwardly, with raised chests and spinal flexures. Nearly all have flat feet, accompanied with a down-tread, differing very widely from the elasticity of action in the foot and ankle, attendant upon perfect formation.
Hair thin and straight--many of the men having but little beard, and that in patches of a few hairs, much resembling its growth among the red men of America. A spiritless and dejected air, a sprawling and wide action of the legs, and an appearance, taken as a whole, giving the world but "little assurance of a man," or if so, "most sadly cheated of his fair proportions Cooped up in a heated atmosphere, debarred the necessary exercise, remaining in one position for a series of hours, one set or system of muscles alone called into activity, it cannot be wondered at--that its effects are injurious to the physical growth of a child.
Where the bony system is still imperfect, the vertical position it is compelled to retain, influences its direction; the spinal column bends beneath the weight of the head, bulges out laterally, or is dragged forward by the weight of the parts composing the chest, the pelvis yields beneath the opposing pressure downwards, and the resistance given by the thigh-bones; its capacity is lessened, sometimes more and sometimes less; the legs curve, and the whole body loses height, in consequence of this general yielding and bending of its parts.
Gaskell, The Manufacturing Population of England. His difficulties are such as today in the Southern states of the United States are commonly urged by manufacturers. Here, then, is the "curse" of our factory-system; as improvements in machinery have gone on, the "avarice of masters" has prompted many to exact more labour from their hands than they were fitted by nature to perform, and those who have wished for the hours of labour to be less for all ages than the legislature would even yet sanction, have had no alternative but to conform more or less to the prevailing practice, or abandon the trade altogether.
This has been the case with regard to myself and my partners. We then came down to sixty-nine; and since Lord ALTHORP's Act was passed, inwe have reduced the time of adults to sixty-seven and a half hours a week, and that of children under thirteen years of age to forty-eight hours in the week, though to do this latter has, I must admit, subjected us to much inconvenience, but the elder hands to more, inasmuch as the relief given to the child is in some measure imposed on the adult.
But the overworking does not apply to children only; the adults are also overworked. The increased speed given to machinery within the last thirty years, has, in very many instances, doubled the labour of both.
Lord Ashley became the chief advocate of the use of chimney-sweeping machinery and of legislation to require its use. Even earlier, however, such a law had been proposed, but it met with strong opposition.
In a debate on this subject in the House of Lords in the Earl of Lauderdale well represented a large body of conservative opinion. Their lordships had lately heard complaints of the encouragement given to machinery, in preference to manual industry.
Now, though he differed most completely from those who cherished the prejudice he alluded to--though he was convinced that the introduction of machinery had not only had the effect of enriching the proprietor, but also of enabling the workman to live better and cheaper than he otherwise could have done--yet there certainly was some difference to be drawn between their encouraging and enforcing the adoption of machinery, and especially when those persons who best understood its application in the way of trade were against its introduction at all.
If their lordships were determined to adopt such a course, they must introduce a code of moral legislation unknown to their ancestors, and quite unsuited to their habits and laws.
The better way, in his judgment, would be to leave reforms of this kind entirely to the moral feeling of, perhaps, the most moral people, on the whole face of the earth.
New Series, 39 8 March year?? More than a generation later the old Earl of Shaftesbury, speaking for a bill to relieve conditions of textile workers in India, commented on the great gains brought about by similar legislation in England. The other is the old, the often-repeated, and as often-refuted, argument that the work is light.
Why, no doubt, much of it is light, if measured by the endurance of some three or four minutes.Jonathan F. Scott and Alexander Baltzly, The Life of the Industrial Worker in 19th-Century England (excerpts from textbook titled Readings in European History Since ) (Laura Del Col) Victorian Economics: An Overview.
The Life of the Industrial Worker The Industrial worker went through a turbulent time. The industrial revolution came so quickly that it changed the lives of all laborers. The fast development of new working conditions and living environment created an environment .
Another indication of worker discontent was the flurry of union activities when both the radical Industrial Workers of the World and the more conservative American Federation of Labor threatened to capitalize on this deep auto worker .
The Industrial Revolution was a time of great age throughout the world. It represented major change from to the period The movement originated in Great Britain and affected everything from industrial manufacturing processes to the daily life of the average citizen. The Industrial Revolution, which took place from the 18th to 19th centuries, was a period during which predominantly agrarian, rural societies in Europe and America became industrial and urban.
The Life of the Industrial Worker The Industrial worker went through a turbulent time. The industrial revolution came so quickly that it changed the lives of all laborers. The fast development of new working conditions and living environment created an environment that hurt the laborers of the time.